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Dysphagia, Malnutrition, and Respiratory: Disease Breaking the Cycle

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1.  In patients with restrictive lung diseases, dysphagia results in ________.
  1. Longer periods of respiratory pause
  2. More frequent post-swallow inhalation
  3. Longer pharyngeal dwell times
  4. Atypical tongue movements
2.  Patients with respiratory sarcopenia demonstrate which of the following?
  1. Diaphragmatic thinning
  2. Lower MIPs and MEPs
  3. Reduced respiratory muscle strength
  4. All of the above
3.  Which of the following are considered risk factors for respiratory muscle loss?
  1. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia
  2. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use
  3. Systemic inflammation and stress
  4. All of the above
4.  Malnutrition has been identified as a risk factor for pneumonia in which of the following populations?
  1. Patients with head and neck cancer
  2. Patients who have sustained a CVA
  3. Elderly individuals
  4. All of the above
5.  Multi-dimensional interventions often include:
  1. Energy conservation techniques and nutritional interventions
  2. Nutritional supplements, oxygen support, and family counseling
  3. Exercise, balanced diet, and smoking cessation
  4. Dietary modifications, aspiration precautions, and swallow screening